Biotechnology Advances, xx (3), xx-xx (2010)
de Carvalho, C.C.C.R.
The use of enzymes and whole bacterial cells has allowed the production of a plethora of compounds that have been used for centuries in foods and beverages. However, only recently we have been able to master techniques that allow the design and development of new biocatalysts with high stability and productivity. Rational redesign and directed evolution have lead to engineered enzymes with new characteristics whilst the understanding of adaptation mechanisms in bacterial cells has allowed their use under new operational conditions. Bacteria able to thrive under the most extreme conditions have also provided new and extraordinary catalytic processes. In this review, the new tools available for the improvement of biocatalysts are presented and discussed.
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